When the identity of the father is unclear
Sometimes a mother is intimate with more than one man around the time she conceives a child. In such a situation, she may be no more sure who the biological father is than her partners. Regardless of your view of the possible moral issues involved, the reality is that having multiple sex partners greatly complicates the determination of paternity.
To figure out who is responsible for helping the mother care and provide for her child, genetic testing of the mother, child, and possible fathers may need to be performed. Costs can run into the hundreds or even thousands of dollars, depending on the type of testing conducted, the number of males to be tested, and how quickly the true father is found.
If a particular prospect is unwilling to participate in testing, the mother might need to get a court order to compel him to submit to the test. Usually, the test involves a cotton swab of cheek cells inside the mouth or, in some cases, a blood draw. Most DNA labs’ results are guaranteed to be 99.99 percent accurate. The court requires only 95 percent accuracy.